Articles | Volume 40, issue 5
Ann. Geophys., 40, 563–570, 2022

Special issue: From the Sun to the Earth's...

Ann. Geophys., 40, 563–570, 2022
Regular paper
05 Sep 2022
Regular paper | 05 Sep 2022

Temporal and altitudinal variability of the spread F observed by the VHF radar over Christmas Island

Ricardo Yvan de La Cruz Cueva et al.

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Cited articles

Aarons, J.: The role of the ring current in the generation or inhibition of equatorial F layer irregularities during magnetic storms, Radio Sci., 26, 1131–1149, 1991. 
Abdu, M. A.: Outstanding problems in the equatorial ionosphere–thermosphere electrodynamics relevant to spread-F, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 63, 869–884, 2001. 
Abdu, M. A.: Equatorial spread F/plasma bubble irregularities under storm time disturbance electric fields, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 75/76, 44–56, 2012. 
Abdu, M. A., Nogueira, P. A. B., Santos, A. M., de Souza, J. R., Batista, I. S., and Sobral, J. H. A.: Impact of disturbance electric fields in the evening on prereversal vertical drift and spread F developments in the equatorial ionosphere, Ann. Geophys., 36, 609–620,, 2018. 
Astafyeva, E., Zakharenkova, I., Hozumi, K., Alken, P., Coïsson, P., Hairston, M. R., and Coley, W. R.: Study of the Equatorial and Low-Latitude Electrodynamic and Ionospheric Disturbances During the 22–23 June 2015 Geomagnetic Storm Using Ground-Based and Spaceborne Techniques, J. Geophys. Res.-Space, 123, 2424–2440,, 2018. 
Short summary
This paper brings analysis of spread-F echoes along the years of 2003 to 2012 from Christmas Island radar. We organize our data with the objective of observing the peak time and altitude distribution. Our results indicate the peak time occurrence of echoes to be distributed closer to local sunset during solar maximum and around midnight during solar minimum; meanwhile, the peak altitude echoes show higher altitude occurrences during solar maxima and lower altitudes during solar minima.