Articles | Volume 41, issue 1
Regular paper
11 Jan 2023
Regular paper |  | 11 Jan 2023

Drivers of rapid geomagnetic variations at high latitudes

Liisa Juusola, Ari Viljanen, Andrew P. Dimmock, Mirjam Kellinsalmi, Audrey Schillings, and James M. Weygand

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Subject: Earth's ionosphere & aeronomy | Keywords: Space weather effects
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Cited articles

Amm, O.: Ionospheric elementary current systems in spherical coordinates and their application, J. Geomagn. Geoelectr., 49, 947–955,, 1997. a
Amm, O. and Viljanen, A.: Ionospheric disturbance magnetic field continuation from the ground to ionosphere using spherical elementary current systems, Earth Planet. Space, 51, 431–440,, 1999. a
Apatenkov, S. V., Pilipenko, V. A., Gordeev, E. I., Viljanen, A., Juusola, L., Belakhovsky, V. B., Sakharov, Y. A., and Selivanov, V. N.: Auroral omega bands are a significant cause of large geomagnetically induced currents, Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2019GL086677,, 2020. a
Balan, N., Ebihara, Y., Skoug, R., Shiokawa, K., Batista, I. S., Ram, S. T., Omura, Y., Nakamura, T., and Fok, M.-C.: A scheme for forecasting severe space weather, J. Geophys. Res.-Space, 122, 2824–2835,, 2017. a
Blake, S. P., Pulkkinen, A., Schuck, P. W., Glocer, A., Oliveira, D. M., Welling, D. T., Weigel, R. S., and Quaresima, G.: Recreating the horizontal magnetic field at Colaba during the Carrington event with geospace simulations, Space Weather, 19, e2020SW002585,, 2021. a
Short summary
We have examined events during which the measured magnetic field on the ground changes very rapidly, causing a risk to technological conductor networks. According to our results, such events occur when strong electric currents in the ionosphere at 100 km altitude are abruptly modified by sudden compression or expansion of the magnetospheric magnetic field farther in space.