Articles | Volume 41, issue 1
Regular paper
14 Feb 2023
Regular paper |  | 14 Feb 2023

Modulation of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSEs) with high-frequency heating during low solar illumination

Tinna L. Gunnarsdottir, Arne Poggenpohl, Ingrid Mann, Alireza Mahmoudian, Peter Dalin, Ingemar Haeggstroem, and Michael Rietveld


Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on angeo-2022-16', Anonymous Referee #1, 20 Jun 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Tinna Gunnarsdottir, 19 Sep 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on angeo-2022-16', Stephan C. Buchert, 21 Jun 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Tinna Gunnarsdottir, 19 Sep 2022

Peer review completion

AR: Author's response | RR: Referee report | ED: Editor decision
ED: Reconsider after major revisions (further review by editor and referees) (26 Sep 2022) by Gunter Stober
AR by Tinna Gunnarsdottir on behalf of the Authors (08 Dec 2022)  Author's response    Author's tracked changes
ED: Referee Nomination & Report Request started (17 Dec 2022) by Gunter Stober
RR by Anonymous Referee #1 (05 Jan 2023)
RR by Stephan C. Buchert (17 Jan 2023)
ED: Publish subject to technical corrections (23 Jan 2023) by Gunter Stober
AR by Tinna Gunnarsdottir on behalf of the Authors (26 Jan 2023)  Author's response    Manuscript
Short summary
Temperatures at 85 km around Earth's poles in summer can be so cold that small ice particles form. These can become charged, and, combined with turbulence at these altitudes, they can influence the many electrons present. This can cause large radar echoes called polar mesospheric summer echoes. We use radio waves to heat these echoes on and off when the sun is close to or below the horizon. This allows us to gain some insight into these ice particles and how the sun influences the echoes.