Articles | Volume 40, issue 4
Regular paper
02 Aug 2022
Regular paper |  | 02 Aug 2022

Arecibo measurements of D-region electron densities during sunset and sunrise: implications for atmospheric composition

Carsten Baumann, Antti Kero, Shikha Raizada, Markus Rapp, Michael P. Sulzer, Pekka T. Verronen, and Juha Vierinen

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This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
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Cited articles

Asmus, H., Robertson, S., Dickson, S., Friedrich, M., and Megner, L.: Charge balance for the mesosphere with meteoric dust particles, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phy., 127, 137–149,, 2015. a
Baumann, C., Rapp, M., Kero, A., and Enell, C.-F.: Meteor smoke influences on the D-region charge balance – review of recent in situ measurements and one-dimensional model results, Ann. Geophys., 31, 2049–2062,, 2013. a
Baumann, C., Rapp, M., Anttila, M., Kero, A., and Verronen, P. T.: Effects of meteoric smoke particles on the D region ion chemistry, J. Geophys. Res.-Space, 120, 10823–10839,, 2015. a, b, c, d
Baumann, C., Kero, A., Raizada, S., Rapp, M., Sulzer, M. P., Verronen, P. T., and Vierinen, J.: Arecibo measurements of D-region electron densities during sunset and sunrise in August 2016, Zenodo [data set],, 2022. a
Breakall, J. K. and Mathews, J. D.: A theoretical and experimental investigation of antenna near-field effects as applied to incoherent backscatter measurements at Arecibo, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 44, 449–454,, 1982. a
Short summary
The Arecibo radar was used to probe free electrons of the ionized atmosphere between 70 and 100 km altitude. This is also the altitude region were meteors evaporate and form secondary particulate matter, the so-called meteor smoke particles (MSPs). Free electrons attach to these MSPs when the sun is below the horizon and cause a drop in the number of free electrons, which are the subject of these measurements. We also identified a different number of free electrons during sunset and sunrise.