Articles | Volume 40, issue 2
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20 Apr 2022
Regular paper | Highlight paper |  | 20 Apr 2022

The Lehtinen–Pirjola method modified for efficient modelling of geomagnetically induced currents in multiple voltage levels of a power network

Risto J. Pirjola, David H. Boteler, Loughlin Tuck, and Santiago Marsal

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Cited articles

Bolduc, L.: GIC observations and studies in the Hydro-Québec Power System, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phy., 64, 1793–1802, 2002. 
Boteler, D. H.: The Use of Linear Superposition in Modelling Geomagnetically Induced Currents, Paper 001545, in: Proceedings IEEE PES General Meeting, Vancouver, 21–15 July 2013, 2530–2534, 2013. 
Boteler, D. H. and Pirjola, R. J.: Comparison of methods for modelling geomagnetically induced currents, Ann. Geophys., 32, 1177–1187,, 2014. 
Boteler, D. H. and Pirjola, R. J.: Modeling geomagnetically induced currents, Space Weather, 15, 258–276,, 2017. 
Boteler, D. H., Pirjola, R., Blais, C., and Foss, A.: Development of a GIC Simulator, Paper 14PESGM1889, in: Proceedings of IEEE PES General Meeting, Washington, DC, July 2014,, 2014. 
Short summary
The Lehtinen–Pirjola (LP) method is widely used for modelling geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in power systems but was developed when the main aim was to model GIC in only the highest voltage level of a power network. Here we present a modification to the LP method designed to provide an efficient method for modelling GIC in multiple voltage levels. We also show how existing software can easily be converted to the new method and provide examples of calculations.