Articles | Volume 38, issue 6
Ann. Geophys., 38, 1299–1312, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-38-1299-2020
Ann. Geophys., 38, 1299–1312, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-38-1299-2020

Regular paper 22 Dec 2020

Regular paper | 22 Dec 2020

Odd hydrogen response thresholds for indication of solar proton and electron impact in the mesosphere and stratosphere

Tuomas Häkkilä et al.

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Cited articles

Andersson, M. E., Verronen, P. T., S. Wang, Rodger, C. J., Clilverd, M. A., and Carson, B.: Precipitating radiation belt electrons and enhancements of mesospheric hydroxyl during 2004–2009, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D09304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD017246, 2012. a
Andersson, M. E., Verronen, P. T., Rodger, C. J., Clilverd, M. A., and Seppälä, A.: Missing driver in the Sun-Earth connection from energetic electron precipitation impacts mesospheric ozone, Nat. Commun., 5, 5197, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6197, 2014a. a
Andersson, M. E., Verronen, P. T., Rodger, C. J., Clilverd, M. A., and Wang, S.: Longitudinal hotspots in the mesospheric OH variations due to energetic electron precipitation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1095–1105, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-1095-2014, 2014b. a
Andersson, M. E., Verronen, P. T., Marsh, D. R., Päivärinta, S.-M., and Plane, J. M. C.: WACCM-D – Improved modeling of nitric acid and active chlorine during energetic particle precipitation, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121, 10328–10341, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD024173, 2016. a, b
Andersson, M. E., Verronen, P. T., Marsh, D. R., Seppälä, A., Päivärinta, S.-M., Rodger, C. J., Clilverd, M. A., Kalakoski, N., and van de Kamp, M.: Polar Ozone Response to Energetic Particle Precipitation Over Decadal Time Scales: The Role of Medium-Energy Electrons, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 123, 607–622, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JD027605, 2018. a
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The atmospheric impacts of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) can be useful in understanding the uncertainties of measuring the precipitation. Hence, information on how strong of an EPP flux has observable atmospheric impacts is needed. In this study, we find such threshold flux values using odd hydrogen concentrations from both satellite observations and model simulations. We consider the effects of solar proton events and radiation belt electron precipitation in the middle atmosphere.