Articles | Volume 38, issue 6
Regular paper 22 Dec 2020
Regular paper | 22 Dec 2020
Odd hydrogen response thresholds for indication of solar proton and electron impact in the mesosphere and stratosphere
Tuomas Häkkilä et al.
No articles found.
Minna Palmroth, Maxime Grandin, Theodoros Sarris, Eelco Doornbos, Stelios Tourgaidis, Anita Aikio, Stephan Buchert, Mark A. Clilverd, Iannis Dandouras, Roderick Heelis, Alex Hoffmann, Nickolay Ivchenko, Guram Kervalishvili, David J. Knudsen, Anna Kotova, Han-Li Liu, David M. Malaspina, Günther March, Aurélie Marchaudon, Octav Marghitu, Tomoko Matsuo, Wojciech J. Miloch, Therese Moretto-Jørgensen, Dimitris Mpaloukidis, Nils Olsen, Konstantinos Papadakis, Robert Pfaff, Panagiotis Pirnaris, Christian Siemes, Claudia Stolle, Jonas Suni, Jose van den IJssel, Pekka T. Verronen, Pieter Visser, and Masatoshi Yamauchi
Ann. Geophys., 39, 189–237,Short summary
This is a review paper that summarises the current understanding of the lower thermosphere–ionosphere (LTI) in terms of measurements and modelling. The LTI is the transition region between space and the atmosphere and as such of tremendous importance to both the domains of space and atmosphere. The paper also serves as the background for European Space Agency Earth Explorer 10 candidate mission Daedalus.
Kaisa Lakkala, Jukka Kujanpää, Colette Brogniez, Nicolas Henriot, Antti Arola, Margit Aun, Frédérique Auriol, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Germar Bernhard, Veerle De Bock, Maxime Catalfamo, Christine Deroo, Henri Diémoz, Luca Egli, Jean-Baptiste Forestier, Ilias Fountoulakis, Katerina Garane, Rosa Delia Garcia, Julian Gröbner, Seppo Hassinen, Anu Heikkilä, Stuart Henderson, Gregor Hülsen, Bjørn Johnsen, Niilo Kalakoski, Angelos Karanikolas, Tomi Karppinen, Kevin Lamy, Sergio F. León-Luis, Anders V. Lindfors, Jean-Marc Metzger, Fanny Minvielle, Harel B. Muskatel, Thierry Portafaix, Alberto Redondas, Ricardo Sanchez, Anna Maria Siani, Tove Svendby, and Johanna Tamminen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6999–7024,Short summary
The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) satellite was launched on 13 October 2017 to provide the atmospheric composition for atmosphere and climate research. Ground-based data from 25 sites located in Arctic, subarctic, temperate, equatorial and Antarctic areas were used for the validation of the TROPOMI surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product. For most sites 60 %–80 % of TROPOMI data was within ± 20 % of ground-based data.
Jia Jia, Antti Kero, Niilo Kalakoski, Monika E. Szeląg, and Pekka T. Verronen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14969–14982,Short summary
Recent studies have reported up to a 10 % average decrease of lower stratospheric ozone at 20 km altitude following solar proton events (SPEs). Our study uses 49 events that occurred after the launch of Aura MLS (July 2004–now) and 177 events that occurred in the WACCM-D simulation period (Jan 1989–Dec 2012) to evaluate ozone changes following SPEs. The statistical and case-by-case studies show no solid evidence of SPE's direct impact on the lower stratospheric ozone.
Luis F. Millan, Gloria L. Manney, and Zachary D. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We assess how consistently reanalyses represent potential vorticity (PV) among each other. PV helps describe dynamical processes in the stratosphere because it acts approximately as a tracer of the movement of air parcels; it is extensively used to identify the location of the tropopause and to identify and characterize the stratospheric polar vortex. Overall, PV from all reanalyses agrees well with the reanalysis ensemble mean.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Monika Szelag, Johanna Tamminen, Erkki Kyrölä, Doug Degenstein, Chris Roth, Daniel Zawada, Alexei Rozanov, Carlo Arosio, John P. Burrows, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Gabriele Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Lucien Froidevaux, Nathaniel Livesey, Michel van Roozendael, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The MErged GRIdded Dataset of Ozone Profiles is the long-term (2001–2018) stratospheric ozone profile climate data record with the resolved longitudinal structure, which combines the data from six limb satellite instruments. The dataset can be used various analyses, some of them are discussed in the paper. In particular, regional and vertically resolved ozone trends are evaluated, including the trends in polar regions.
Mahesh Kovilakam, Larry W. Thomason, Nicholas Ernest, Landon Rieger, Adam Bourassa, and Luis Millán
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2607–2634,Short summary
A robust stratospheric aerosol climatology is important as many global climate models (GCMs) make use of observed aerosol properties to prescribe aerosols in the stratosphere. Here, we present version 2.0 of the GloSSAC data set in which a new methodology is used for the post-2005 data that improves the quality of data in the lower stratosphere, which includes an improved 1020 nm extinction. Additionally, size information from multiwavelength measurements of SAGE III/ISS is provided.
Luis Millán, Richard Roy, and Matthew Lebsock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5193–5205,Short summary
This paper describes the feasibility of using a differential absorption radar technique for the remote sensing of total column water vapor from a spaceborne platform.
Niilo Kalakoski, Pekka T. Verronen, Annika Seppälä, Monika E. Szeląg, Antti Kero, and Daniel R. Marsh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8923–8938,Short summary
Effects of solar proton events (SPEs) on middle atmosphere chemistry were studied using the WACCM-D chemistry–climate model, including an improved representation of lower ionosphere ion chemistry. This study includes 66 events in the years 1989–2012 and uses a statistical approach to determine the impact of the improved chemistry scheme. The differences shown highlight the importance of ion chemistry in models used to study energetic particle precipitation.
Pekka T. Verronen, Daniel R. Marsh, Monika E. Szeląg, and Niilo Kalakoski
Ann. Geophys., 38, 833–844,Short summary
This paper is the first to study how the representation of the magnetic-local-time (MLT) dependency of electron precipitation impacts middle-atmospheric-ozone response on monthly timescales. We use a state-of-the-art chemistry–climate model with detailed lower-ionospheric chemistry for an advanced representation of atmospheric impacts of electron forcing. We find that the use of daily zonal-mean electron forcing will provide an accurate ozone response in long-term climate simulations.
Monika E. Szeląg, Viktoria F. Sofieva, Doug Degenstein, Chris Roth, Sean Davis, and Lucien Froidevaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7035–7047,Short summary
We analyze seasonal dependence of stratospheric ozone trends over 2000–2018. We demonstrate that the mid-latitude upper stratospheric ozone recovery maximizes during local winters and equinoxes. In the tropics, a very strong seasonal dependence of ozone trends is observed at all altitudes. We found hemispheric asymmetry of summertime ozone trend patterns below 35 km. The seasonal dependence of ozone trends and stratospheric temperature trends shows a clear inter-relation of the trend patterns.
Luis F. Millán, Matthew D. Lebsock, and Joao Teixeira
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8491–8502,Short summary
The synergy of the collocated Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global estimates of marine boundary layer water vapor. AMSR provides the total column water vapor, while MODIS provides the water vapor above the cloud layers. The difference between the two gives the vapor between the surface and the cloud top, which may be interpreted as the boundary layer water vapor.
Xiaoyi Zhao, Kristof Bognar, Vitali Fioletov, Andrea Pazmino, Florence Goutail, Luis Millán, Gloria Manney, Cristen Adams, and Kimberly Strong
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2463–2483,Short summary
Ozone is one of the most widely monitored trace gases in the atmosphere. It can be measured via its strong absorption bands in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis) and infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum. Using multiple ground-based measurements and modeled data, this work provides a measurement-based evaluation of the impact of clouds on UV-visible total column ozone measurements in the high Arctic.
David A. Newnham, Mark A. Clilverd, Michael Kosch, Annika Seppälä, and Pekka T. Verronen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1375–1392,Short summary
A simulation study has been carried out to investigate the potential for observing ozone and hydroxyl radical abundances in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using ground-based passive microwave radiometry. In the polar middle atmosphere these chemical species respond strongly to geomagnetic activity associated with space weather. The results show that measuring diurnal variations in ozone and hydroxyl from high-latitude Northern Hemisphere and Antarctic locations would be possible.
Richard J. Roy, Matthew Lebsock, Luis Millán, Robert Dengler, Raquel Rodriguez Monje, Jose V. Siles, and Ken B. Cooper
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6511–6523,Short summary
The measurement of water vapor profiles inside clouds with high spatial resolution represents an outstanding problem in atmospheric remote sensing. Here we present measurements from a proof-of-concept millimeter-wave (170 GHz) cloud radar aimed at filling this observational gap, and demonstrate the ability to retrieve in-cloud water vapor profiles with high precision and resolution. This technology could meaningfully impact future satellite-based measurements of water vapor.
Erkki Kyrölä, Monika E. Andersson, Pekka T. Verronen, Marko Laine, Simo Tukiainen, and Daniel R. Marsh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5001–5019,Short summary
In this work we compare three key constituents of the middle atmosphere (ozone, NO2, and NO3) from the GOMOS satellite instrument with the WACCM model. We find that in the stratosphere (below 50 km) ozone differences are very small, but in the mesosphere large deviations are found. GOMOS and WACCM NO2 agree reasonably well except in the polar areas. These differences can be connected to the solar particle storms. For NO3, WACCM results agree with GOMOS with a very high correlation.
Luis F. Millán, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Michelle L. Santee, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4187–4199,Short summary
This study investigates orbital sampling biases and evaluates the additional impact caused by data quality screening for the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS).
Larry W. Thomason, Nicholas Ernest, Luis Millán, Landon Rieger, Adam Bourassa, Jean-Paul Vernier, Gloria Manney, Beiping Luo, Florian Arfeuille, and Thomas Peter
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 469–492,Short summary
We describe the construction of a continuous 38-year record of stratospheric aerosol optical properties. The Global Space-based Stratospheric Aerosol Climatology, or GloSSAC, provided the input data to the construction of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project stratospheric aerosol forcing data set (1979 to 2014) and is now extended through 2016. GloSSAC focuses on the the SAGE series of instruments through mid-2005 and on OSIRIS and CALIPSO after that time.
Anders V. Lindfors, Jukka Kujanpää, Niilo Kalakoski, Anu Heikkilä, Kaisa Lakkala, Tero Mielonen, Maarten Sneep, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Antti Arola, and Johanna Tamminen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 997–1008,Short summary
This paper describes the algorithm that will be used for estimating surface UV radiation from TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) measurements. TROPOMI is the only payload of the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P), which is a polar-orbiting satellite mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). The presented algorithm has been tested using input based on previous satellite measurements. These preliminary results indicate that the algorithm is functioning according to expectations.
Xiaoyi Zhao, Dan Weaver, Kristof Bognar, Gloria Manney, Luis Millán, Xin Yang, Edwin Eloranta, Matthias Schneider, and Kimberly Strong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14955–14974,Short summary
Few scientific questions about surface ozone depletion have been addressed, using a variety of measurements and atmospheric models. The lifetime of reactive bromine is only a few hours in the absence of recycling. Evidence of this recycling over aerosol or blowing-snow/ice particles was found at Eureka. The blowing snow sublimation process is a key step in producing bromine-enriched sea-salt aerosol. Ground-based FTIR isotopologue measurements at Eureka provided evidence of this key step.
Gloria L. Manney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Zachary D. Lawrence, Krzysztof Wargan, Luis F. Millán, Michael J. Schwartz, Michelle L. Santee, Alyn Lambert, Steven Pawson, Brian W. Knosp, Ryan A. Fuller, and William H. Daffer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11541–11566,Short summary
The upper tropospheric–lower stratospheric (UTLS) jet stream and multiple tropopause distributions are compared among five state-of-the-art reanalyses. The reanalyses show very similar global distributions of UTLS jets, reflecting their overall high quality; slightly larger differences are seen in tropopause characteristics. Regional and seasonal differences, albeit small, may have implications for using these reanalyses for quantitative dynamical and transport studies focusing on the UTLS.
Luis F. Millán and Gloria L. Manney
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9277–9289,Short summary
An ozone mini-hole is a synoptic-scale region with strongly decreased total column ozone resulting from dynamical processes. Using total column measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and ozone profile measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder, we evaluate the accuracy of mini-hole representation in five reanalyses.
Katja Matthes, Bernd Funke, Monika E. Andersson, Luke Barnard, Jürg Beer, Paul Charbonneau, Mark A. Clilverd, Thierry Dudok de Wit, Margit Haberreiter, Aaron Hendry, Charles H. Jackman, Matthieu Kretzschmar, Tim Kruschke, Markus Kunze, Ulrike Langematz, Daniel R. Marsh, Amanda C. Maycock, Stergios Misios, Craig J. Rodger, Adam A. Scaife, Annika Seppälä, Ming Shangguan, Miriam Sinnhuber, Kleareti Tourpali, Ilya Usoskin, Max van de Kamp, Pekka T. Verronen, and Stefan Versick
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2247–2302,Short summary
The solar forcing dataset for climate model experiments performed for the upcoming IPCC report is described. This dataset provides the radiative and particle input of solar variability on a daily basis from 1850 through to 2300. With this dataset a better representation of natural climate variability with respect to the output of the Sun is provided which provides the most sophisticated and comprehensive respresentation of solar variability that has been used in climate model simulations so far.
Bernd Funke, William Ball, Stefan Bender, Angela Gardini, V. Lynn Harvey, Alyn Lambert, Manuel López-Puertas, Daniel R. Marsh, Katharina Meraner, Holger Nieder, Sanna-Mari Päivärinta, Kristell Pérot, Cora E. Randall, Thomas Reddmann, Eugene Rozanov, Hauke Schmidt, Annika Seppälä, Miriam Sinnhuber, Timofei Sukhodolov, Gabriele P. Stiller, Natalia D. Tsvetkova, Pekka T. Verronen, Stefan Versick, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, and Vladimir Yushkov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3573–3604,Short summary
Simulations from eight atmospheric models have been compared to tracer and temperature observations from seven satellite instruments in order to evaluate the energetic particle indirect effect (EPP IE) during the perturbed northern hemispheric (NH) winter 2008/2009. Models are capable to reproduce the EPP IE in dynamically and geomagnetically quiescent NH winter conditions. The results emphasize the need for model improvements in the dynamical representation of elevated stratopause events.
Niall J. Ryan, Mathias Palm, Uwe Raffalski, Richard Larsson, Gloria Manney, Luis Millán, and Justus Notholt
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 77–89,Short summary
We present a self-consistent data set of carbon monoxide (CO) in the Arctic middle atmosphere above Kiruna, Sweden, between 2008 and 2015. The data are retrieved from measurements made by the ground-based radiometer, KIMRA, and are compared to coincident CO data measured by the satellite instrument MLS. KIMRA shows agreement with MLS over the altitude range in which KIMRA is sensitive (48–84 km) and the data show the signatures of dynamic processes such as sudden stratospheric warmings.
Colette Brogniez, Frédérique Auriol, Christine Deroo, Antti Arola, Jukka Kujanpää, Béatrice Sauvage, Niilo Kalakoski, Mikko Riku Aleksi Pitkänen, Maxime Catalfamo, Jean-Marc Metzger, Guy Tournois, and Pierre Da Conceicao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15049–15074,Short summary
The atmospheric ozone layer is changing, thus the UV radiation at the surface is changing. Due to both beneficial and adverse effects of UV on the biosphere, monitoring of UV is essential. Satellite sensors provide estimates of UV at the surface with a global coverage. Validation of satellite-sensor UV is therefore needed and this can be done by comparison with ground-based measurements. The present validation in three sites (midlatitude, tropical) shows that OMI and GOME-2 provide reliable UV.
Luis F. Millán, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Michelle L. Santee, Jessica L. Neu, Gloria L. Manney, and Ryan A. Fuller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11521–11534,Short summary
This paper describes the impact of orbital sampling applied to stratospheric temperature and trace gas fields. Model fields are sampled using real sampling patterns from different satellites. We find that coarse nonuniform sampling patterns may introduce non-negligible errors into the inferred magnitude of temperature and trace gas trends and necessitate considerably longer records for their definitive detection.
Tamás Kovács, John M. C. Plane, Wuhu Feng, Tibor Nagy, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Pekka T. Verronen, Monika E. Andersson, David A. Newnham, Mark A. Clilverd, and Daniel R. Marsh
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3123–3136,Short summary
This study was completed on D-region atmospheric model development. The sophisticated 3-D Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) and the 1-D Sodynkalä Ion and Neutral Chemistry Model (SIC) were combined in order to provide a detailed, accurate model (WACCM-SIC) that considers the processes taking place in solar proton events. The original SIC model was reduced by mechanism reduction, which provided an accurate sub-mechanism (rSIC, WACCM-rSIC) of the original model.
Luis Millán, Matthew Lebsock, Nathaniel Livesey, and Simone Tanelli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2633–2646,Short summary
We discuss the theoretical capabilities of a radar technique to measure profiles of water vapor in cloudy/precipitating areas. The method uses two radar pulses at different frequencies near the 183 GHz H2O absorption line to determine water vapor profiles by measuring the differential absorption on and off the line. Results of inverting synthetic data assuming a satellite radar are presented.
Niilo Kalakoski, Jukka Kujanpää, Viktoria Sofieva, Johanna Tamminen, Margherita Grossi, and Pieter Valks
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1533–1544,
S. Hassinen, D. Balis, H. Bauer, M. Begoin, A. Delcloo, K. Eleftheratos, S. Gimeno Garcia, J. Granville, M. Grossi, N. Hao, P. Hedelt, F. Hendrick, M. Hess, K.-P. Heue, J. Hovila, H. Jønch-Sørensen, N. Kalakoski, A. Kauppi, S. Kiemle, L. Kins, M. E. Koukouli, J. Kujanpää, J.-C. Lambert, R. Lang, C. Lerot, D. Loyola, M. Pedergnana, G. Pinardi, F. Romahn, M. van Roozendael, R. Lutz, I. De Smedt, P. Stammes, W. Steinbrecht, J. Tamminen, N. Theys, L. G. Tilstra, O. N. E. Tuinder, P. Valks, C. Zerefos, W. Zimmer, and I. Zyrichidou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 383–407,Short summary
The three GOME-2 instruments will provide unique and long data sets for atmospheric research and applications. The complete time period will be 2007–2022, including the period of ozone depletion as well as the beginning of ozone layer recovery. The GOME-2 products (ozone, trace gases, aerosols and UV radiation) are important for ozone chemistry, air quality studies, climate modeling, policy monitoring and hazard warnings. The processing and dissemination is done by EUMETSAT O3M SAF project.
J. Kujanpää and N. Kalakoski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4399–4414,Short summary
The surface ultraviolet radiation product generated operationally in the framework of the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites is described. The product is derived from measurements of polar orbiting satellites and contains important quantities of solar radiation that can be harmful to life on the Earth and affect atmospheric reactions related to air quality and climate change.
M. D. Lebsock, K. Suzuki, L. F. Millán, and P. M. Kalmus
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3631–3645,Short summary
This paper describes the feasibility of using a differential absorption radar technique for the remote sensing of water vapor within clouds near the Earth surface from a spaceborne platform. The proposed methodology is shown to be theoretically achievable and complimentary to existing water vapor remote sensing methods.
P. T. Verronen, M. E. Andersson, A. Kero, C.-F. Enell, J. M. Wissing, E. R. Talaat, K. Kauristie, M. Palmroth, T. E. Sarris, and E. Armandillo
Ann. Geophys., 33, 381–394,Short summary
Electron concentrations observed by EISCAT radars can be reasonable well represented using AIMOS v1.2 satellite-data-based ionization model and SIC D-region ion chemistry model. SIC-EISCAT difference varies from event to event, probably because the statistical nature of AIMOS ionization is not capturing all the spatio-temporal fine structure of electron precipitation. Below 90km, AIMOS overestimates electron ionization because of proton contamination of the satellite electron detectors.
L. Millán, S. Wang, N. Livesey, D. Kinnison, H. Sagawa, and Y. Kasai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2889–2902,
L. Millán, M. Lebsock, N. Livesey, S. Tanelli, and G. Stephens
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3959–3970,
V. F. Sofieva, N. Kalakoski, S.-M. Päivärinta, J. Tamminen, M. Laine, and L. Froidevaux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1891–1900,
M. E. Andersson, P. T. Verronen, C. J. Rodger, M. A. Clilverd, and S. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1095–1105,
V. F. Sofieva, N. Rahpoe, J. Tamminen, E. Kyrölä, N. Kalakoski, M. Weber, A. Rozanov, C. von Savigny, A. Laeng, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, S. Lossow, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. Adams, C. Roth, N. Lloyd, P. Bernath, R. J. Hargreaves, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, M. van Roozendael, N. Kalb, and C. Zehner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 349–363,
P. T. Verronen and R. Lehmann
Ann. Geophys., 31, 909–956,
Andersson, M. E., Verronen, P. T., Marsh, D. R., Seppälä, A., Päivärinta, S.-M., Rodger, C. J., Clilverd, M. A., Kalakoski, N., and van de Kamp, M.: Polar Ozone Response to Energetic Particle Precipitation Over Decadal Time Scales: The Role of Medium-Energy Electrons, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 123, 607–622, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JD027605, 2018. a
Funke, B., Baumgaertner, A., Calisto, M., Egorova, T., Jackman, C. H., Kieser, J., Krivolutsky, A., López-Puertas, M., Marsh, D. R., Reddmann, T., Rozanov, E., Salmi, S.-M., Sinnhuber, M., Stiller, G. P., Verronen, P. T., Versick, S., von Clarmann, T., Vyushkova, T. Y., Wieters, N., and Wissing, J. M.: Composition changes after the ”Halloween” solar proton event: the High Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA) model versus MIPAS data intercomparison study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9089–9139, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-9089-2011, 2011. a
Jackman, C. H., McPeters, R. D., Labow, G. J., Fleming, E. L., Praderas, C. J., and Russel, J. M.: Northern hemisphere atmospheric effects due to the July 2000 solar proton events, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2883–2886, 2001. a
Jackman, C. H., Marsh, D. R., Vitt, F. M., Roble, R. G., Randall, C. E., Bernath, P. F., Funke, B., López-Puertas, M., Versick, S., Stiller, G. P., Tylka, A. J., and Fleming, E. L.: Northern Hemisphere atmospheric influence of the solar proton events and ground level enhancement in January 2005, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6153–6166, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-6153-2011, 2011. a, b
Kalakoski, N., Verronen, P. T., Seppälä, A., Szeląg, M. E., Kero, A., and Marsh, D. R.: Statistical response of middle atmosphere composition to solar proton events in WACCM-D simulations: the importance of lower ionospheric chemistry, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8923–8938, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-8923-2020, 2020. a, b
Livesey, N. J., Read, W. G., Wagner, P. A., Froidevaux, L., Lambert, A., Manney, G. L., Valle, L. F. M., Pumphrey, H. C., Santee, M. L., Schwartz, M. J., Wang, S., Fuller, R. A., Jarnot, R. F., Knosp, B. W., Martinez, E., and Lay, R. R.: EOS MLS Version 4.2x Level 2 data quality and description document, JPL D-33509 Rev. D, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 29 January 2018, Version 4.2x-3.1, 2018. a, b, c, d, e
Matthes, K., Funke, B., Andersson, M. E., Barnard, L., Beer, J., Charbonneau, P., Clilverd, M. A., Dudok de Wit, T., Haberreiter, M., Hendry, A., Jackman, C. H., Kretzschmar, M., Kruschke, T., Kunze, M., Langematz, U., Marsh, D. R., Maycock, A. C., Misios, S., Rodger, C. J., Scaife, A. A., Seppälä, A., Shangguan, M., Sinnhuber, M., Tourpali, K., Usoskin, I., van de Kamp, M., Verronen, P. T., and Versick, S.: Solar forcing for CMIP6 (v3.2), Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2247–2302, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-2247-2017, 2017. a, b
Pickett, H. M., Drouin, B. J., Canty, T., Kovalenko, L. J., Salawitch, R. J., Livesey, N. J., Read, W. G., Waters, J. W., Jucks, K. W., and Traub, W. A.: Validation of Aura MLS HOx measurements with remote-sensing balloon instruments, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01808, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024048, 2006a. a
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Rienecker, M. M., Suarez, M. J., Gelaro, R., Todling, R., Bacmeister, J., Liu, E., Bosilovich, M. G., Schubert, S. D., Takacs, L., Kim, G.-K., Bloom, S., Chen, J., Collins, D., Conaty, A., da Silva, A., Gu, W., Joiner, J., Koster, R. D., Lucchesi, R., Molod, A., Owens, T., Pawson, S., Pegion, P., Redder, C. R., Reichle, R., Robertson, F. R., Ruddick, A. G., Sienkiewicz, M., and Woollen, J.: MERRA: NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, J. Climate, 24, 3624–3648, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00015.1, 2011. a
Turunen, E., Verronen, P. T., Seppälä, A., Rodger, C. J., Clilverd, M. A., Tamminen, J., Enell, C.-F., and Ulich, T.: Impact of different precipitation energies on NOx generation during geomagnetic storms, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 71, 1176–1189, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.005, 2009. a
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The atmospheric impacts of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) can be useful in understanding the uncertainties of measuring the precipitation. Hence, information on how strong of an EPP flux has observable atmospheric impacts is needed. In this study, we find such threshold flux values using odd hydrogen concentrations from both satellite observations and model simulations. We consider the effects of solar proton events and radiation belt electron precipitation in the middle atmosphere.
The atmospheric impacts of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) can be useful in understanding...