Articles | Volume 37, issue 4
Ann. Geophys., 37, 747–761, 2019

Special issue: Vertical coupling in the atmosphere–ionosphere system

Ann. Geophys., 37, 747–761, 2019

Regular paper 23 Aug 2019

Regular paper | 23 Aug 2019

Effects of solar flares on the ionosphere as shown by the dynamics of ionograms recorded in Europe and South Africa

Veronika Barta et al.

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Cited articles

Afraimovich, E. L.: GPS global detection of the ionospheric response to solar flares, Radio Sci., 35, 1417,, 2000. 
Bothmer, V. and Daglis, I. A.: Space Weather, Physics and Effects, Springer, Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London, 203–223, 2007. 
Brasseur, G. and Solomon, S.: Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere, 2nd Edn., edited by: Reidel, D., Publishing Company, Dordrecht/Boston/Lancaster, 317-331, 1986. 
Davies, K.: Ionospheric radio (No. 31), IET, 1990. 
Denardini, C. M., Resende, L. C. A., Moro, J., and Chen, S. S.: Occurrence of the blanketing sporadic E layer during the recovery phase of the October 2003 superstorm, Earth Planet. Space, 68, 80,, 2016. 
Short summary
The solar flare effects on ionosphere at midlatitudes and low latitudes were investigated with the systematic analysis of ionospheric parameters derived from ionograms (total radio fade-out, fmin, dfmin: deviation from the reference days). The duration of the total fade-out varied with the solar zenith angle. Furthermore, a solar-zenith-angle-dependent enhancement of the fmin and dfmin parameters was detected but the observed values also depended on the flare intensity.