Articles | Volume 37, issue 4
Ann. Geophys., 37, 747–761, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-37-747-2019

Special issue: Vertical coupling in the atmosphere–ionosphere system

Ann. Geophys., 37, 747–761, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-37-747-2019

Regular paper 23 Aug 2019

Regular paper | 23 Aug 2019

Effects of solar flares on the ionosphere as shown by the dynamics of ionograms recorded in Europe and South Africa

Veronika Barta et al.

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Latest update: 20 Apr 2021
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Short summary
The solar flare effects on ionosphere at midlatitudes and low latitudes were investigated with the systematic analysis of ionospheric parameters derived from ionograms (total radio fade-out, fmin, dfmin: deviation from the reference days). The duration of the total fade-out varied with the solar zenith angle. Furthermore, a solar-zenith-angle-dependent enhancement of the fmin and dfmin parameters was detected but the observed values also depended on the flare intensity.