Articles | Volume 37, issue 4
Ann. Geophys., 37, 747–761, 2019

Special issue: Vertical coupling in the atmosphere–ionosphere system

Ann. Geophys., 37, 747–761, 2019

Regular paper 23 Aug 2019

Regular paper | 23 Aug 2019

Effects of solar flares on the ionosphere as shown by the dynamics of ionograms recorded in Europe and South Africa

Veronika Barta et al.

Data sets

The X-ray data from the GOES 11 and 12 satellites NOAA

Short summary
The solar flare effects on ionosphere at midlatitudes and low latitudes were investigated with the systematic analysis of ionospheric parameters derived from ionograms (total radio fade-out, fmin, dfmin: deviation from the reference days). The duration of the total fade-out varied with the solar zenith angle. Furthermore, a solar-zenith-angle-dependent enhancement of the fmin and dfmin parameters was detected but the observed values also depended on the flare intensity.