Articles | Volume 37, issue 6
Ann. Geophys., 37, 1197–1222, 2019
Ann. Geophys., 37, 1197–1222, 2019

Review paper 19 Dec 2019

Review paper | 19 Dec 2019

Terrestrial ion escape and relevant circulation in space

Masatoshi Yamauchi


Interactive discussion

Status: closed
Status: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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Peer-review completion

AR: Author's response | RR: Referee report | ED: Editor decision
ED: Publish subject to revisions (further review by editor and referees) (21 Sep 2019) by Ioannis A. Daglis
AR by Masatoshi Yamauchi on behalf of the Authors (31 Oct 2019)  Author's response    Manuscript
ED: Publish as is (19 Nov 2019) by Ioannis A. Daglis
Short summary
Terrestrial ion transport and total escape are synthesized, with stress on the high-latitude polar region and the inner magnetosphere where Custer significantly improved knowledge. After estimating the outflow flux and destinations, complicated ion dynamics in the inner magnetosphere was classified and summarized, through which more than half the O+ is finally lost to space. Together with direct escapes, total O+ escape is high enough to influence the evolution of the biosphere.