Articles | Volume 37, issue 6
Ann. Geophys., 37, 1197–1222, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-37-1197-2019
Ann. Geophys., 37, 1197–1222, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-37-1197-2019

Review paper 19 Dec 2019

Review paper | 19 Dec 2019

Terrestrial ion escape and relevant circulation in space

Masatoshi Yamauchi

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Short summary
Terrestrial ion transport and total escape are synthesized, with stress on the high-latitude polar region and the inner magnetosphere where Custer significantly improved knowledge. After estimating the outflow flux and destinations, complicated ion dynamics in the inner magnetosphere was classified and summarized, through which more than half the O+ is finally lost to space. Together with direct escapes, total O+ escape is high enough to influence the evolution of the biosphere.