Articles | Volume 35, issue 3
Ann. Geophys., 35, 721–731, 2017
Ann. Geophys., 35, 721–731, 2017

Regular paper 12 Jun 2017

Regular paper | 12 Jun 2017

Atmospheric loss from the dayside open polar region and its dependence on geomagnetic activity: implications for atmospheric escape on evolutionary timescales

Rikard Slapak et al.

Related authors

Energy conversion through mass loading of escaping ionospheric ions for different Kp values
Masatoshi Yamauchi and Rikard Slapak
Ann. Geophys., 36, 1–12,,, 2018
Short summary
Relative outflow enhancements during major geomagnetic storms – Cluster observations
Audrey Schillings, Hans Nilsson, Rikard Slapak, Masatoshi Yamauchi, and Lars-Göran Westerberg
Ann. Geophys., 35, 1341–1352,,, 2017
Short summary
Quantification of the total ion transport in the near-Earth plasma sheet
Rikard Slapak, Maria Hamrin, Timo Pitkänen, Masatoshi Yamauchi, Hans Nilsson, Tomas Karlsson, and Audrey Schillings
Ann. Geophys., 35, 869–877,,, 2017
Short summary
O+ transport in the dayside magnetosheath and its dependence on the IMF direction
R. Slapak, H. Nilsson, L. G. Westerberg, and R. Larsson
Ann. Geophys., 33, 301–307,,, 2015

The requested paper has a corresponding corrigendum published. Please read the corrigendum first before downloading the article.

Short summary
In this study, we have used Cluster satellite data to quantify the ionospheric oxygen ion (O+) escape into the solar wind and its dependence on geomagnetic activity. During times of high activity, the escape may be 2 orders of magnitude higher than under quiet conditions, strongly suggesting that the escape rate was much higher when the Sun was young. The results are important for future studies regarding atmospheric loss over geological timescales.