Articles | Volume 33, issue 11
Regular paper
20 Nov 2015
Regular paper |  | 20 Nov 2015

Association of radiation belt electron enhancements with earthward penetration of Pc5 ULF waves: a case study of intense 2001 magnetic storms

M. Georgiou, I. A. Daglis, E. Zesta, G. Balasis, I. R. Mann, C. Katsavrias, and K. Tsinganos

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Our study demonstrates a remarkable association between the earthward penetration of ULF waves and radiation belt electron enhancements during four magnetic storms that occurred in 2001. In the past, ULF waves had been observed at unusual depths during rare superstorms. But ULF wave activity, reaching magnetic shells as low as 2, was also observed during relatively intense storms when it played a key role in diffusing electrons radially inward and thereby accelerating them to higher energies.