Articles | Volume 39, issue 4
Ann. Geophys., 39, 743–758, 2021
Ann. Geophys., 39, 743–758, 2021

Regular paper 20 Aug 2021

Regular paper | 20 Aug 2021

Climatology of ionosphere over Nepal based on GPS total electron content data from 2008 to 2018

Drabindra Pandit et al.

Related authors

Variability of Relativistic Electron Flux (E > 2 MeV) during Geo-Magnetically Quiet and Disturbed days: A Case Study
Tulsi Thapa, Binod Adhikari, Prashrit Baruwal, and Kiran Pudasainee
Ann. Geophys. Discuss.,,, 2020
Preprint withdrawn
Postmidnight equatorial plasma irregularities on the June solstice during low solar activity – a case study
Claudia M. N. Candido, Jiankui Shi, Inez S. Batista, Fabio Becker-Guedes, Emília Correia, Mangalathayil A. Abdu, Jonathan Makela, Nanan Balan, Narayan Chapagain, Chi Wang, and Zhengkuan Liu
Ann. Geophys., 37, 657–672,,, 2019
Short summary
Induction effects of geomagnetic disturbances in the geo-electric field variations at low latitudes
Vafi Doumbia, Kouadio Boka, Nguessan Kouassi, Oswald Didier Franck Grodji, Christine Amory-Mazaudier, and Michel Menvielle
Ann. Geophys., 35, 39–51,,, 2017
Short summary
Statistical study of the night-time F-layer dynamics at the magnetic equator in West Africa during the solar minimum period 1995–1997
K. S. Tanoh, B. J.-P. Adohi, I. S. Coulibaly, C. Amory-Mazaudier, A. T. Kobea, and P. Assamoi
Ann. Geophys., 33, 143–157,,, 2015
Climatology of nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) in the Central Pacific and South American sectors
T. M. Duly, N. P. Chapagain, and J. J. Makela
Ann. Geophys., 31, 2229–2237,,, 2013

Related subject area

Subject: Earth's ionosphere & aeronomy | Keywords: Climatology of the ionosphere
Global total electron content prediction performance assessment of the IRI-2016 model based on empirical orthogonal function decomposition
Shuhui Li, Jiajia Xu, Houxiang Zhou, Jinglei Zhang, Zeyuan Xu, and Mingqiang Xie
Ann. Geophys., 38, 331–345,,, 2020
Short summary
Climatology of intermediate descending layers (or 150 km echoes) over the equatorial and low-latitude regions of Brazil during the deep solar minimum of 2009
Ângela Machado dos Santos, Inez Staciarini Batista, Mangalathayil Ali Abdu, José Humberto Andrade Sobral, Jonas Rodrigues de Souza, and Christiano Garnett Marques Brum
Ann. Geophys., 37, 1005–1024,,, 2019
Short summary

Cited articles

Akala, A. O., Rabiu, A. B., Somoye, E. O., Oyeyemi, E. O., and Adeloye, A. B.: The Response of African equatorial GPS TEC to intense geomagnetic storms during the ascending phase of solar cycle 24, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr.-Phy., 98, 50–62,, 2013. 
Ansari, K., Park, K. D., and Panda, S. K.: Empirical and orthogonal function analysis and modeling of ionospheric TEC over South Korean region, Acta Astronaut., 161, 313–324,, 2019. 
Anderson, D. and Fuller-Rowell, T.: The ionosphere, Space environment topics SE-14, Report, Space Environment Center, Boulder, 1999. 
Appleton, E. V. and Ingram, L. J.: Magnetic Storms and Upper-Atmospheric Ionisation, Nature, 136, 548–549,, 1935. 
Bagiya, M. S., Joshi, H. P., Iyer, K. N., Aggarwal, M., Ravindran, S., and Pathan, B. M.: TEC variations during low solar activity period (2005–2007) near the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly Crest region in India, Ann. Geophys., 27, 1047–1057,, 2009. 
Short summary
We analyse the climatology of the ionosphere over Nepal based on GPS-derived vertical total electron content (VTEC) during 2008–2018. The study illustrates the diurnal, monthly, annual, seasonal and solar cycle variations in VTEC. The results show equinoctial asymmetry in TEC in maximum phases in 2014, followed by descending, ascending and minimum phases. The winter anomalies are seen during increasing and maximum phases of the solar cycle (2011–2014) from almost all stations considered.