Articles | Volume 38, issue 5
Regular paper
15 Sep 2020
Regular paper |  | 15 Sep 2020

Induced currents due to 3D ground conductivity play a major role in the interpretation of geomagnetic variations

Liisa Juusola, Heikki Vanhamäki, Ari Viljanen, and Maxim Smirnov

Data sets

International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects IMAGE

Crustal conductivity in Fennoscandia – a compilation of a database on crustal conductance in the Fennoscandian Shield ( T. Korja, M. Engels, A. A. Zhamaletdinov, A. A. Kovtun, N. A. Palshin, M. Y. Smirnov, A. D. Tokarev, V. E. Asming, L. L. Vanyan, I. L. Vardaniants, and the BEAR Working Group

Model code and software

Apex Python library C. van der Meeren and A. G. Burrell

PyWavelets/pywt: PyWavelets 1.1.1 (Version v1.1.1) G. R. Lee, R. Gommers, K. Wohlfahrt, F. Wasilewski, A. O'Leary, H. Nahrstaedt, D. Menéndez Hurtado, A. Sauvé, T. Arildsen, H. Oliveira, D. M. Pelt, A. Agrawal, SylvainLan, M. Pelletier, M. Brett, F. Yu, S. Choudhary, D. Tricoli, L. M. Craig, L. Ravindranathan, J. Dan, jakirkham, J. Antonello, D. Laszuk, D. Goertzen, C. Goldberg, B. Reczey, 0-tree, A. Smith, and asnt

Short summary
Rapid variations of the magnetic field measured on the ground can be used to estimate space weather risks to power grids, but forecasting the variations remains a challenge. We show that part of this problem stems from the fact that, in addition to electric currents in space, the magnetic field variations are strongly affected by underground electric currents. We suggest that separating the measured field into its space and underground parts could improve our understanding of space weather.