Articles | Volume 35, issue 6
Regular paper
15 Dec 2017
Regular paper |  | 15 Dec 2017

Relative outflow enhancements during major geomagnetic storms – Cluster observations

Audrey Schillings, Hans Nilsson, Rikard Slapak, Masatoshi Yamauchi, and Lars-Göran Westerberg

Related authors

The fate of O+ ions observed in the plasma mantle: particle tracing modelling and cluster observations
Audrey Schillings, Herbert Gunell, Hans Nilsson, Alexandre De Spiegeleer, Yusuke Ebihara, Lars G. Westerberg, Masatoshi Yamauchi, and Rikard Slapak
Ann. Geophys., 38, 645–656,,, 2020
Short summary
Quantification of the total ion transport in the near-Earth plasma sheet
Rikard Slapak, Maria Hamrin, Timo Pitkänen, Masatoshi Yamauchi, Hans Nilsson, Tomas Karlsson, and Audrey Schillings
Ann. Geophys., 35, 869–877,,, 2017
Short summary
Atmospheric loss from the dayside open polar region and its dependence on geomagnetic activity: implications for atmospheric escape on evolutionary timescales
Rikard Slapak, Audrey Schillings, Hans Nilsson, Masatoshi Yamauchi, Lars-Göran Westerberg, and Iannis Dandouras
Ann. Geophys., 35, 721–731,,, 2017
Short summary
Short summary
The Earth's atmosphere is constantly losing ions and in particular oxygen ions. This phenomenon is important to understand the atmospheric evolution on a large timescale. In this study, the O+ outflow is estimated during six extreme geomagnetic storms using the European Cluster mission data. These estimations are compared with average magnetospheric conditions and show that during those six extreme storms, the O+ outflow is approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher.