Articles | Volume 35, issue 6
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-35-1341-2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-35-1341-2017
Regular paper
 | 
15 Dec 2017
Regular paper |  | 15 Dec 2017

Relative outflow enhancements during major geomagnetic storms – Cluster observations

Audrey Schillings, Hans Nilsson, Rikard Slapak, Masatoshi Yamauchi, and Lars-Göran Westerberg

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Latest update: 04 Mar 2024
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Short summary
The Earth's atmosphere is constantly losing ions and in particular oxygen ions. This phenomenon is important to understand the atmospheric evolution on a large timescale. In this study, the O+ outflow is estimated during six extreme geomagnetic storms using the European Cluster mission data. These estimations are compared with average magnetospheric conditions and show that during those six extreme storms, the O+ outflow is approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher.