Articles | Volume 36, issue 5
Ann. Geophys., 36, 1243–1254, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-36-1243-2018
Ann. Geophys., 36, 1243–1254, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-36-1243-2018
Regular paper
26 Sep 2018
Regular paper | 26 Sep 2018

The ionospheric response over the UK to major bombing raids during World War II

Christopher J. Scott and Patrick Major

Viewed

Total article views: 12,264 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
10,022 2,110 132 12,264 81 82
  • HTML: 10,022
  • PDF: 2,110
  • XML: 132
  • Total: 12,264
  • BibTeX: 81
  • EndNote: 82
Views and downloads (calculated since 18 May 2018)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 18 May 2018)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 11,704 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 11,536 with geography defined and 168 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 

Cited

Discussed (final revised paper)

Discussed (preprint)

Latest update: 20 Sep 2022
Download
Short summary
The variability of the Earth's ionosphere (the electrified region of the Earth's upper atmosphere) results from external forcing from above (through solar activity and space weather effects) and from below (via natural sources such as lightning storms and tectonics). Bombing raids over Europe during World War II were used to determine the quantitative impact of explosions on the ionosphere. It was found that raids using more than 300 tonnes of explosives weakened the ionosphere for up to 5 h.