Articles | Volume 36, issue 5
Ann. Geophys., 36, 1243–1254, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-36-1243-2018
Ann. Geophys., 36, 1243–1254, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-36-1243-2018

Regular paper 26 Sep 2018

Regular paper | 26 Sep 2018

The ionospheric response over the UK to major bombing raids during World War II

Christopher J. Scott and Patrick Major

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Interactive discussion

Status: closed
Status: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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Peer-review completion

AR: Author's response | RR: Referee report | ED: Editor decision
ED: Publish as is (14 Aug 2018) by Dalia Buresova

Post-review adjustments

AA: Author's adjustment | EA: Editor approval
AA by Chris Scott on behalf of the Authors (11 Sep 2018)   Author's adjustment   Manuscript
EA: Adjustments approved (13 Sep 2018) by Dalia Buresova
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Short summary
The variability of the Earth's ionosphere (the electrified region of the Earth's upper atmosphere) results from external forcing from above (through solar activity and space weather effects) and from below (via natural sources such as lightning storms and tectonics). Bombing raids over Europe during World War II were used to determine the quantitative impact of explosions on the ionosphere. It was found that raids using more than 300 tonnes of explosives weakened the ionosphere for up to 5 h.