Correlation of very low and low frequency signal variations at mid-latitudes with magnetic activity and outer-zone particles
Abstract. The disturbances of very low and low frequency signals in the lower mid-latitude ionosphere caused by magnetic storms, proton bursts and relativistic electron fluxes are investigated on the basis of VLF–LF measurements obtained in the Far East and European networks. We have found that magnetic storm (−150 < Dst < −100 nT) influence is not strong on variations of VLF–LF signals. The anomalies with negative amplitude were registered during the main and recovery phases for several magnetic storms (mainly for three northernmost paths). The correlation between VLF–LF signals and geomagnetic activity is rather weak even for these paths (≈ 12–18%). Also, the correlation between magnetic activity and VLF signal variations recorded onboard the DEMETER satellite is not found. The significant influence of outer-zone particles (energetic particle sensor on board/Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) measurements) on the VLF–LF signal variations is found for almost half of the sub-ionospheric paths.