Typhoon 9707 observations with the MU radar and L-band boundary layer radar
- 1Radio Science Center for Space and Atmosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan
- 2Osaka Electro-Communication University, Neyagawa, Osaka 572–8530, Japan
Abstract. Typhoon 9707 (Opal) was observed with the VHF-band Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU) radar, an L-band boundary layer radar (BLR), and a vertical-pointing C-band meteorological radar at the Shigaraki MU Observatory in Shiga prefecture, Japan on 20 June 1997. The typhoon center passed about 80 km southeast from the radar site. Mesoscale precipitating clouds developed due to warm-moist airmass transport from the typhoon, and passed over the MU radar site with easterly or southeasterly winds. We primarily present the wind behaviour including the vertical component which a conventional meteorological Doppler radar cannot directly observe, and discuss the relationship between the wind behaviour of the typhoon and the precipitating system. To investigate the dynamic structure of the typhoon, the observed wind was divided into radial and tangential wind components under the assumption that the typhoon had an axi-symmetric structure. Altitude range of outflow ascended from 1–3 km to 2–10 km with increasing distance (within 80–260 km range) from the typhoon center, and in-flow was observed above and below the outflow. Outflow and inflow were associated with updraft and downdraft, respectively. In the tangential wind, the maximum speed of counterclockwise winds was confirmed at 1–2 km altitudes. Based on the vertical velocity and the reflectivity obtained with the MU radar and the C-band meteorological radar, respectively, precipitating clouds, accompanied by the wind behaviour of the typhoon, were classified into stratiform and convective precipitating clouds. In the stratiform precipitating clouds, a vertical shear of radial wind and the maximum speed of counterclockwise wind were observed. There was a strong reflectivity layer called a ‘bright band’ around the 4.2 km altitude. We confirmed strong updrafts and down-drafts below and above it, respectively, and the existence of a relatively dry layer around the bright band level from radiosonde soundings. In the convective precipitating clouds, the regions of strong and weak reflectivities were well associated with those of updraft and downdraft, respectively.
Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; precipitation) Radio science (remote sensing)