Estimation of temperature and humidity from MST radar observations
Abstract. Retrieval of vertical profiles of temperature and humidity parameters using a VHF radar is described in this paper. For this, Indian MST radar located at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) has been operated in a special mode. First, vertical velocities are collected continuously using the radar and are subjected to Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis to obtain Brunt-Väisälä oscillations. From the measured Brunt-Väisälä oscillations, temperature profile is obtained from the radar observations following Revathy et al. (1996). The various terms required for the retrieval of vertical profiles of humidity are the eddy dissipation rate, ε, the volume reflectivity, η, and the potential refractive index gradient, M. The eddy dissipation rate, ε, is calculated from the spectral width after removing the effects due to non-turbulence. The volume reflectivity, η, of the turbulence scattering is calculated using the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of height. The potential refractive index gradient, M, is evaluated using the measured Brunt-Väisälä oscillations, the eddy dissipation rate and the volume reflectivity, η. Vertical profiles of humidity are retrieved following Tsuda (1997) using the radar derived temperature as well as the balloon measured temperature and are compared with the humidity as measured by the radiosonde. The sign of the potential refractive index gradient, M, is taken from the simultaneous measurements of balloon soundings. The retrieved vertical profiles of temperature and humidity have been compared with the radiosonde data, which are released simultaneously with the radar observations at the radar site. A fairly good comparison is seen between the two measurements on some days and there are some discrepancies on some other days. The strengths and limitations in estimating the vertical profiles of temperature and humidity from the radar observations are discussed.
Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; enhancements and techniques)