Articles | Volume 18, issue 7
Ann. Geophys., 18, 730–739, 2000

Special issue: Lance Thomas

Ann. Geophys., 18, 730–739, 2000

  31 Jul 2000

31 Jul 2000

The equatorial F-layer: progress and puzzles

H. Rishbeth H. Rishbeth
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom
  • e-mail:

Abstract. This work reviews some aspects of the ionospheric F-layer in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator. Starting with a historical introduction, brief summaries are given of the physics that makes the equatorial ionosphere so interesting, concentrating on the large-scale structure rather than the smaller-scale instability phenomena. Several individual topics are then discussed, including eclipse effects, the asymmetries of the `equatorial trough', variations with longitude, the semiannual variation, the effects of the global thermospheric circulation, and finally the equatorial neutral thermosphere, including `superrotation' and possible topographic influences.

Keyword: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere)

Special issue