A statistical study over Europe of the relative locations of lightning and associated energetic burst of electrons from the radiation belt
Abstract. The DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) spacecraft detects short bursts of lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) simultaneously with newly injected upgoing whistlers. The LEP occurs within < 1 s of the causative lightning discharge. First in situ observations of the size and location of the region affected by the LEP precipitation are presented on the basis of a statistical study made over Europe using the DEMETER energetic particle detector, wave electric field experiment, and networks of lightning detection (Météorage, the UK Met Office Arrival Time Difference network (ATDnet), and the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN)). The LEP is shown to occur significantly north of the initial lightning and extends over some 1000 km on each side of the longitude of the lightning. In agreement with models of electron interaction with obliquely propagating lightning-generated whistlers, the distance from the LEP to the lightning decreases as lightning proceed to higher latitudes.