Articles | Volume 33, issue 5
ANGEO Communicates
06 May 2015
ANGEO Communicates |  | 06 May 2015

Extremely intense (SML ≤–2500 nT) substorms: isolated events that are externally triggered?

B. T. Tsurutani, R. Hajra, E. Echer, and J. W. Gjerloev


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Latest update: 14 Jul 2024
Short summary
Particularly intense substorms (SSS), brilliant auroral displays with strong >106A currents in the ionosphere, are studied. It is believed that these SSS events cause power outages during magnetic storms. It is shown that SSS events can occur during all intensity magnetic storms; thus power problems are not necessarily restricted to the rare most intense storms. We show four SSS events that are triggered by solar wind pressure pulses. If this is typical, ~30-minute warnings could be issued.