Observational evidence of coupling between quasi-periodic echoes and medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances
Abstract. We have found that quasi-periodic (QP) echoes in the E region were well defined when medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) in the F region were present. The appearance and disappearance of the MSTIDs observed with the dense GPS receiver network are well correlated with the development and decay of QP echoes observed with the Middle-and-Upper atmosphere (MU) radar. Interferometric imaging of the QP echoes obtained using the MU radar shows that bands of echoing regions aligned northwest to southeast drift southwestward, and their wavefront and propagation direction are the same as those of MSTIDs. This result confirms the expectation of Hysell et al. (2002) who observed band structures in QP echoes by using the MU radar and suggested their relation to MSTIDs. We found observational evidence that the midlatitude E- and F regions are coupled through the geomagnetic field line, although we could not clearly ascertain which of the two regions is the source.