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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 23, issue 6
Ann. Geophys., 23, 2129–2170, 2005
© Author(s) 2005. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Ann. Geophys., 23, 2129–2170, 2005
© Author(s) 2005. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  15 Sep 2005

15 Sep 2005

Coordinated studies of the geospace environment using Cluster, satellite and ground-based data: an interim review

O. Amm1, E. F. Donovan2, H. Frey3, M. Lester4, R. Nakamura5, J. A. Wild*,4, A. Aikio6, M. Dunlop7, K. Kauristie1, A. Marchaudon8,**, I. W. McCrea7, H.-J. Opgenoorth9, and A. Strømme10 O. Amm et al.
  • 1Finnish Meteorological Institute, Space Research, P.O. Box 503, FIN-00101 Helsinki, Finland
  • 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, T2N 1N4, Canada
  • 3Univ. of California, Space Sci. Lab., Centennial Drive at Grizzly Peak Boulevard, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450, USA
  • 4Radio Space Plasma Physics Group, Department of Physics Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
  • 5Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstraße 6, 8042 Graz, Austria
  • 6University of Oulu, Department of Physical Sciences, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 University of Oulu, Finland
  • 7Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX, UK
  • 8CETP/IPSL/UVSQ, 4 avenue de Neptune, 94107 Saint-Maur-des-Fossés Cedex, France
  • 9Solar and Solar Terrestrial Missions Division, ESTEC (SCI-SH), P.O.Box 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands
  • 10Auroral Observatory, University of Tromsø, N-9073 Tromsø, Norway
  • *now at: Space Plasma Environment and Radio Sci. group, Dept. of Communication Systems, InfoLab 21, Lancaster Univ., Lancaster, LA1 4WA, UK
  • **now at: Mullard Space Sci. Lab., Univ. College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT, UK

Abstract. A little more than four years after its launch, the first magnetospheric, multi-satellite mission Cluster has already tremendously contributed to our understanding about the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere system. This is mostly due to its ability, for the first time, to provide instantaneous spatial views of structures in the system, to separate temporal and spatial variations, and to derive velocities and directions of moving structures. Ground-based data have an important complementary impact on Cluster-related research, as they provide a larger-scale context to put the spacecraft data in, allow to virtually enlarge the spacecrafts' field of view, and make it possible to study in detail the coupling between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere in a spatially extended domain. With this paper we present an interim review of cooperative research done with Cluster and ground-based instruments, including the support of other space-based data. We first give a short overview of the instrumentation used, and present some specific data analysis and modeling techniques that have been devised for the combined analysis of Cluster and ground-based data. Then we review highlighted results of the research using Cluster and ground-based data, ordered into dayside and nightside processes. Such highlights include, for example, the identification of the spatio-temporal signatures of the different modes of reconnection on the dayside, and the detailed analysis of the electrodynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling of bursty bulk flows in the tail plasma sheet on the nightside. The aim of this paper is to provide a "sourcebook" for the Cluster and ground-based community that summarises the work that has been done in this field of research, and to identify open questions and possible directions for future studies.

Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere) – Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; General or miscellanous)

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