Cluster observations of mid-latitude hiss near the plasmapause
- 1RSSD of ESA, ESTEC, Noordwijk, 2201AZ, The Netherlands
- 2STAR Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
- 3Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
- 4LPCE/CNRS and Université d’Orléans, Orléans, 45071, France
Abstract. In the vicinity of the plasmapause, around the geomagnetic equator, the four Cluster satellites often observe banded hiss-like electromagnetic emissions (BHE); below the electron gyrofrequency but above the lower hybrid resonance, from 2kHz to 10kHz. We show that below 4kHz, these waves propagate in the whistler mode. Using the first year of scientific operations of WHISPER, STAFF and WBD wave experiments on Cluster, we have identified the following properties of the BHE waves: (i) their location is strongly correlated with the position of the plasmapause, (ii) no MLT dependence has been found, (iii) their spectral width is generally 1 to 2kHz, and (iv) the central frequency of their emission band varies from 2kHz to 10kHz. All these features suggest that BHE are in fact mid-latitude hiss emissions (MLH). Moreover, the central frequency was found to be correlated with the Kp index. This suggests either that these banded emissions are generated in a given f/fce range, or that there is a Kp dependent Doppler shift between the satellites and a possible moving source of the MLH.