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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 20, issue 7
Ann. Geophys., 20, 1105–1115, 2002
© Author(s) 2002. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Special issue: SPACE WEATHER

Ann. Geophys., 20, 1105–1115, 2002
© Author(s) 2002. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  31 Jul 2002

31 Jul 2002

Solar activity monitoring and forecasting capabilities at Big Bear Solar Observatory

P. T. Gallagher2,1, C. Denker2, V. Yurchyshyn2, T. Spirock2, J. Qiu2, H. Wang2, and P. R. Goode2 P. T. Gallagher et al.
  • 1L-3 Com Analytics Corp., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
  • 2Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Big Bear City, CA 92314, USA
  • Correspondence to: P. T. Gallagher (

Abstract. The availability of full-disk, high-resolution Ha images from Big Bear Solar Observatory (USA), Kanzelhöhe Solar Observatory (Austria), and Yunnan Astronomical Observatory (China) allows for the continual monitoring of solar activity with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Typically, this Global Ha Network (GHN) provides almost uninterrupted Ha images with a cadence of 1 min and an image scale of 1'' per pixel. 

Every hour, GHN images are transferred to the web-based BBSO Active Region Monitor (ARM;, which includes the most recent EUV, continuum, and magnetogram data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, together with magnetograms from the Global Oscillation Network Group. ARM also includes a variety of active region properties from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Space Environment Center, such as up-to-date active region positions, GOES 5-min X-ray data, and flare identification. Stokes I, V, Q, and U images are available from the recently operational BBSO Digital Vector Magnetograph and the Vector Magnetograph at the Huairou Solar Observing Station of Beijing Observatory. Vector magnetograms provide complete information on the photospheric magnetic field, and allow for magnetic flux gradients, electric currents, and shear forces to be calculated: these measurements are extremely sensitive to conditions resulting in flaring activity. Furthermore, we have developed a Flare Prediction System which estimates the probability for each region to produce C-, M-, or X-class flares based on nearly eight years of NOAA data from cycle 22. This, in addition to BBSO’s daily solar activity reports, has proven a useful resource for activity forecasting.

Key words. Solar physics, astronomy and astrophysics (flares and mass ejections; instruments and techniques; photosphere and chromosphere)

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