Case studies of space weather events from their launching on the Sun to their impacts on power systems on the Earth
- Geomagnetic Laboratory, Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, 7 Observatory Crescent, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0Y3, Canada
- Correspondence to: H.-L. Lam (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Abstract. Active geomagnetic conditions on 12–13, 15–16, and 22–23 September 1999 resulted in geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) measurable in power systems in Canada and the United States. Different solar origins for these three events gave rise to dissimilar interplanetary signatures. We used these events to present three case studies, each tracing an entire space weather episode from its inception on the Sun, propagation through the interplanetary medium, manifestation on the ground as intense magnetic and electric fluctuations, and its eventual impact on technological systems.
Key words. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (rapid time variations) – Interplanetary physics (interplanetary magnetic fields) – Solar physics, astrophysics, and astronomy (flares and mass ejections)