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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 15, issue 6
Ann. Geophys., 15, 753–759, 1997
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-997-0753-3
© European Geosciences Union 1997
Ann. Geophys., 15, 753–759, 1997
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-997-0753-3
© European Geosciences Union 1997

  30 Jun 1997

30 Jun 1997

Observations and model calculations of an additional layer in the topside ionosphere above Fortaleza, Brazil

B. Jenkins1,*, G. J. Bailey1, M. A. Abdu2, I. S. Batista2, and N. Balan3 B. Jenkins et al.
  • 1Upper Atmosphere Modelling Group, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH, UK
  • 2Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Caixa Postal 515, 12201-970, São José dos Campos, S.P., Brazil
  • 3Radio Atmospheric Science Center, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611, Japan
  • *is now at British Antarctic Survey, NERC, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK

Abstract. Calculations using the Sheffield University plasmasphere ionosphere model have shown that under certain conditions an additional layer can form in the low latitude topside ionosphere. This layer (the F3 layer) has subsequently been observed in ionograms recorded at Fortaleza in Brazil. It has not been observed in ionograms recorded at the neighbouring station São Luis. Model calculations have shown that the F3 layer is most likely to form in summer at Fortaleza due to a combination of the neutral wind and the E×B drift acting to raise the plasma. At the location of São Luis, almost on the geomagnetic equator, the neutral wind has a smaller vertical component so the F3 layer does not form.

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