Response of the ionosphere to natural and man-made acoustic sources
Abstract. A review is presented of the effects influencing the ionosphere which are caused by acoustic emission from different sources (chemical and nuclear explosions, bolides, meteorites, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, launches of spacecrafts and flights of supersonic jets). A terse statement is given of the basic theoretical principles and simplified theoretical models underlying the physics of propagation of infrasonic pulses and gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. The observations of "quick" response by the ionosphere are pointed out. The problem of magnetic disturbances and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave generation in the ionosphere is investigated. In particular, the supersonic propagation of ionospheric disturbances, and the conversion of the acoustic energy into the so-called gyrotropic waves in the ionospheric E-layer are considered.