Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2022-18
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2022-18
 
05 Sep 2022
05 Sep 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal ANGEO.

Latitudinal variations of ionospheric-thermospheric responses to Geomagnetic Storms from Multi-Instruments

Rasim Shahzad1, Munawar Shah1, Ayesha Abbas2, Amna Hafeez1, Andres Calabia3, Angela Melgarejo-Morales4, and Najam Abbas Naqvi2 Rasim Shahzad et al.
  • 1Department of Space Sciences, Space Education and GNSS Lab, National Center of GIS and Space Application, Institute of Space Technology, IST, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan
  • 2Department of Petroleum Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
  • 3School of Remote Sensing and Geomatics Engineering, Nanjing University Information Science Technology, China
  • 4Department of Earth and Space Science, Autonomous University of Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa, 80040, Mexico

Abstract. Scintillations of transionospheric satellite signals during geomagnetic storms can severely threaten navigation accuracy and the integrity of space assets. We analyze vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) variations from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) at different latitudes around the world during the geomagnetic storms of June 2015 and August 2018. The resulting ionospheric perturbations at the low-and mid-latitudes are investigated in terms of the prompt penetration electric field (PPEF), the equatorial electrojet (EEJ), and the magnetic H component from INTERMAGNET stations near the equator. East and South-East Asia, Russia, and Oceania exhibited positive vTEC disturbances, while South American stations showed negative vTEC disturbances during both storms. We also analyzed the vTEC from the Swarm satellites and found similar results to the GNSS retrieved vTEC during different phases of both geomagnetic storms. Moreover, we observed that ionospheric plasma tended to increase rapidly during the afternoon in the main phase of the storms. At nighttime, the ionosphere depicted an opposite behavior under similar conditions. The equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest expansion to mid and high latitudes is driven by PPEF during daytime at the main and recovery phases of the storms. The magnetic H component exhibits a longitudinal behavior along with the EEJ enhancement near the magnetic equator.

Rasim Shahzad et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on angeo-2022-18', Anonymous Referee #1, 19 Oct 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', munawar shah, 02 Dec 2022
  • CC1: 'Comment on angeo-2022-18', MAJID KHAN, 07 Nov 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on CC1', munawar shah, 02 Dec 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on angeo-2022-18', Anonymous Referee #2, 10 Nov 2022
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC2', munawar shah, 02 Dec 2022

Rasim Shahzad et al.

Rasim Shahzad et al.

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Short summary
The ionospheric satellite signals during geomagnetic storms can severely threaten navigation accuracy. We analyzed vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) variations from the Global Navigation Satellite System at different latitudes around the world during the geomagnetic storms of June 2015 and August 2018. We also analyzed the vTEC from the Swarm satellites and found similar results to the GNSS retrieved vTEC during different phases of both geomagnetic storms.