Searching for the 27-day solar rotational cycle in lightning events recorded in old diaries in Kyoto from the 17th to 18th century
Abstract. A solar rotational period of approximately 27 days has been detected in cloud and lightning activities, although the mechanism of the sun–climate connection remains unclear. In previous studies, lightning activity in Japan showed a significant signal of the solar rotational period, especially around the maxima of the decadal solar cycles. Here we analyze the time series of lightning activity in the AD 1668–1767 period, extracted from old diaries in Kyoto, Japan, and search for the signal of solar rotational cycles. The 27-day cycles were detected in the lightning data and occurred only around the maxima of the decadal sunspot cycles. The signal disappeared during AD 1668–1715, which corresponds to the latter half of the Maunder Minimum when both radiative and magnetic disturbances were thought to have been weak. These findings provide insight into the connection between solar activity and the Earth's climate.