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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 33, issue 1
Ann. Geophys., 33, 109–116, 2015
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-33-109-2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Ann. Geophys., 33, 109–116, 2015
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-33-109-2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Regular paper 27 Jan 2015

Regular paper | 27 Jan 2015

The extreme solar storm of May 1921: observations and a complex topological model

H. Lundstedt1, T. Persson2, and V. Andersson1 H. Lundstedt et al.
  • 1Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF), Lund, Sweden
  • 2Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

Abstract. A complex solid torus model was developed in order to be able to study an extreme solar storm, the so-called "Great Storm" or "New York Railroad Storm" of May 1921, when neither high spatial and time resolution magnetic field measurements, solar flare nor coronal mass ejection observations were available. We suggest that a topological change happened in connection with the occurrence of the extreme solar storm. The solar storm caused one of the most severe space weather effects ever.

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