Articles | Volume 32, issue 3
Ann. Geophys., 32, 301–317, 2014
Ann. Geophys., 32, 301–317, 2014

Regular paper 31 Mar 2014

Regular paper | 31 Mar 2014

Long-term trends observed in the middle atmosphere temperatures using ground based LIDARs and satellite borne measurements

P. Kishore1, M. Venkat Ratnam2, I. Velicogna1, V. Sivakumar3, H. Bencherif4, B. R. Clemesha5, D. M. Simonich5, P. P. Batista5, and G. Beig6 P. Kishore et al.
  • 1Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA
  • 2National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Department of Space, Gadanki, India
  • 3School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa
  • 4Laboratoire de l'Atmosphère et des Cyclones, Université de la Réunion, Reunion Island, France
  • 5Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos/SP, Brazil
  • 6Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, India

Abstract. Long-term data available from Lidar systems located at three different locations namely São José dos Campos, Brazil (23.2° S, 45.8° W), Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) and Reunion (20.8° S, 55.5° E) have been used to investigate the long-term variations like Annual, Semi-annual, Quasi-biennial, El Nino Southern Oscillation and solar cycle. These oscillations are also extracted from simultaneous satellite borne measurements of HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) instrument onboard UARS and SABER onboard TIMED over these stations making largest time series covering the entire middle atmosphere. A good agreement is found between the LIDAR and satellite-derived amplitudes and phases between 30 and 65 km altitude, which suggests that satellite measurements can be used to investigate the long-term trends globally. Latter measurements are extended to 80 km in order to further investigate these oscillations. Large difference in the amplitudes between the eastern pacific and western pacific is noticed in these oscillations. Changing from cooling trends in the stratosphere to warming trends in the mesosphere occurs more or less at altitude around 70 km altitude and this result agrees well with that observed by satellite measurements reported in the literature. The peak in the cooling trend does not occur at a fixed altitude in the stratosphere however maximum warming trend is observed around 75 km at all the stations. The observed long-term trends including various oscillations are compared with that reported with various techniques.