Regional variability of raindrop size distribution over Indonesia
Abstract. Regional variability of raindrop size distribution (DSD) along the Equator was investigated through a network of Parsivel disdrometers in Indonesia. The disdrometers were installed at Kototabang (KT; 100.32° E, 0.20° S), Pontianak (PT; 109.37° E, 0.00° S), Manado (MN; 124.92° E, 1.55° N) and Biak (BK; 136.10° E, 1.18° S). It was found that the DSD at PT has more large drops than at the other three sites. The DSDs at the four sites are influenced by both oceanic and continental systems, and majority of the data matched the maritime-like DSD that was reported in a previous study. Continental-like DSDs were somewhat dominant at PT and KT. Regional variability of DSD is closely related to the variability of topography, mesoscale convective system propagation and horizontal scale of landmass. Different DSDs at different sites led to different Z–R relationships in which the radar reflectivity at PT was much larger than at other sites, at the same rainfall rate.