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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 28, issue 3
Ann. Geophys., 28, 795–805, 2010
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-28-795-2010
© Author(s) 2010. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Ann. Geophys., 28, 795–805, 2010
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-28-795-2010
© Author(s) 2010. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  18 Mar 2010

18 Mar 2010

Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

J. Liu1,2, B. Zhao1, and L. Liu1 J. Liu et al.
  • 1Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
  • 2Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Abstract. Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs) of total electron content (TEC) retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months.

Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT) dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle and high latitudes for 20≤Ap<40 and Ap≥40.

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