Ray tracing analysis of L mode pumping of the ionosphere, with implications for the magnetic zenith effect
Abstract. Using ray tracing of ordinary mode HF waves in an ionosphere with kilometre-scale field aligned density depletions, or ducts, we find that transmission across the plasma resonance becomes possible at new locations as rays are guided into the so-called L mode. Stronger transmitted fields are seen in some directions, notably at inclinations close to the vertical or the magnetic zenith (MZ). It is argued that the results could have implications for the magnetic zenith effect, i.e., the increased plasma response that has been observed around the MZ.