Zonal asymmetry of daytime 150-km echoes observed by Equatorial Atmosphere Radar in Indonesia
- 1Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
- 2National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki, India
- 3Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
- 4Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Japan
Abstract. Multi-beam observations of the daytime ionospheric E-region irregularities and the so-called 150-km echoes with the 47-MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) in West Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20° S, 100.32° E, 10.36° S dip latitude) are presented. 150-km echoes have been frequently observed by the EAR, and their characteristics are basically the same as the equatorial ones, except for an intriguing zonal asymmetry; stronger echoes in lower altitudes in the east directions, and weaker echoes in higher altitudes in the west. The highest occurrence is seen at 5.7° east with respect to the magnetic meridian, and the altitude gradually increases as viewing from the east to west. Arc structures which return backscatter echoes are proposed to explain the asymmetry. While the strength of radar echoes below 105 km is uniform within the wide coverage of azimuthal directions, the upper E-region (105–120 km) echoes also show a different type of zonal asymmetry, which should be generated by an essentially different mechanism from the lower E-region and 150-km echoes.