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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 27, issue 1
Ann. Geophys., 27, 261–278, 2009
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-27-261-2009
© Author(s) 2009. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Ann. Geophys., 27, 261–278, 2009
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-27-261-2009
© Author(s) 2009. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  15 Jan 2009

15 Jan 2009

E-region decameter-scale plasma waves observed by the dual TIGER HF radars

B. A. Carter and R. A. Makarevich B. A. Carter and R. A. Makarevich
  • Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086, Australia

Abstract. The dual Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER) HF radars regularly observe E-region echoes at sub-auroral magnetic latitudes 58°–60° S including during geomagnetic storms. We present a statistical analysis of E-region backscatter observed in a period of ~2 years (late 2004–2006) by the TIGER Bruny Island and Unwin HF radars, with particular emphasis on storm-time backscatter. It is found that the HF echoes normally form a 300-km-wide band at ranges 225–540 km. In the evening sector during geomagnetic storms, however, the HF echoes form a curved band joining to the F-region band at ~700 km. The curved band lies close to the locations where the geometric aspect angle is zero, implying little to no refraction during geomagnetic storms, which is an opposite result to what has been reported in the past. The echo occurrence, Doppler velocity, and spectral width of the HF echoes are examined in order to determine whether new HF echo types are observed at sub-auroral latitudes, particularly during geomagnetic storms. The datasets of both TIGER radars are found to be dominated by low-velocity echoes. A separate population of storm-time echoes is also identified within the datasets of both radars with most of these echoes showing similar characteristics to the low-velocity echo population. The storm-time backscatter observed by the Bruny Island radar, on the other hand, includes near-range echoes (r<405 km) that exhibit some characteristics of what has been previously termed the High Aspect angle Irregularity Region (HAIR) echoes. We show that these echoes appear to be a storm-time phenomenon and further investigate this population by comparing their Doppler velocity with the simultaneously measured F- and E-region irregularity velocities. It is suggested that the HAIR-like echoes are observed only by HF radars with relatively poor geometric aspect angles when electron density is low and when the electric field is particularly high.

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