A review of the quantitative links between CMEs and magnetic clouds
Abstract. Magnetic clouds (MCs), and more generally, interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), are believed to be the interplanetary counterparts of CMEs. The link has usually been shown by taking into account the CME launch position on the Sun, the expected time delay and by comparing the orientation of the coronal and interplanetary magnetic field. Making such a link more quantitative is challenging since it requires a relation between very different kinds of magnetic field measurements: (i) photospheric magnetic maps, which are observed from a distant vantage point (remote sensing) and (ii) in-situ measurements of MCs, which provide precise, directly measured, magnetic field data merely from one-dimensional linear samples. The association between events in these different domains can be made using adequate coronal and MC models. Then, global quantities like magnetic fluxes and helicity can be derived and compared. This review paper describes all the general trends found in the above association criteria. A special focus is given for the cases which do not follow the earlier derived mean laws since interesting physics is usually involved.