High-altitude and high-latitude O+ and H+ outflows: the effect of finite electromagnetic turbulence wavelength
Abstract. The energization of ions, due to interaction with electromagnetic turbulence (i.e. wave-particle interactions), has an important influence on H+ and O+ ions outflows in the polar region. The effects of altitude and velocity dependent wave-particle interaction on H+ and O+ ions outflows in the auroral region were investigated by using Monte Carlo method. The Monte Carlo simulation included the effects of altitude and velocity dependent wave-particle interaction, gravity, polarization electrostatic field, and divergence of auroral geomagnetic field within the simulation tube (1.2–10 earth radii, RE). As the ions are heated due to wave-particle interactions (i.e. ion interactions with electromagnetic turbulence) and move to higher altitudes, the ion gyroradius ρi may become comparable to the electromagnetic turbulence wavelength λ⊥ and consequently (k⊥ρi) becomes larger than unity. This turns the heating rate to be negligible and the motion of the ions is described by using Liouville theorem. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) the formation of H+ and O+ conics at lower altitudes and for all values of λ⊥; (2) O+ toroids appear at 3.72 RE, 2.76 RE and 2 RE, for λ⊥=100, 10, and 1 km, respectively; however, H+ toroids appear at 6.6 RE, 4.4 RE and 3 RE, for λ⊥=100, 10, and 1 km, respectively; and H+ and O+ ion toroids did not appear for the case λ⊥ goes to infinity, i.e. when the effect of velocity dependent wave-particle interaction was not included; (3) As λ⊥ decreases, H+ and O+ ion drift velocity decreases, H+ and O+ ion density increases, H+ and O+ ion perpendicular temperature and H+ and O+ ion parallel temperature decrease; (4) Finally, including the effect of finite electromagnetic turbulence wavelength, i.e. the effect of velocity dependent diffusion coefficient and consequently, the velocity dependent wave-particle interactions produce realistic H+ and O+ ion temperatures and H+ and O+ toroids, and this is, qualitatively, consistent with the observations of H+ and O+ ions in the auroral region at high altitudes.