A comparative study of structure of vertical motions in the lower troposphere over Pune, a tropical Indian station in March 2004 and 2005 using Wind Profiler data
Abstract. An extended heat wave condition affected Pune (18.31° N, 73.58° E), India and surrounding region during the pre-monsoon month of March 2004, when surface temperatures were observed to be above normal. In contrast, March 2005 showed a long spell of below normal temperatures. The vertical velocity measurements from UHF (404 MHz) Wind Profiler at Pune have been used to understand the role of vertical motions in the lower troposphere in maintenance of long spells of above (in March 2004) and below (in March 2005) normal surface temperatures over the station. The altitude profiles of vertical wind velocities showed different behavior in the two contrasting years 2004 and 2005. It is observed that for a major part of the month and at all heights, downward motions (subsidence) dominate during March 2004. Strong downward motions persisted for spells of 2 to 3 days when high surface temperatures (above 38°C) were recorded over this station. A positive relation between surface temperature anomalies and depth of subsidence points to the role of subsidence. March 2005 showed the persistence of upward motion for longer time duration during morning hours which prevented the surface temperatures from reaching high values with weak subsidence during afternoon hours. This is supported by observation of more frequent and organized thermal plumes extending right into the free troposphere. There are distinct episodes of advective warmings during March 2004 while March 2005 showed weak or absence of temperature advection from north. Hence a combination of meridional transport of heat and persistent subsidence in the lower troposphere seemed to have led to recording of above normal surface temperatures during March 2004 over the station.