Decadal solar effects on temperature and ozone in the tropical stratosphere
Abstract. To investigate the effects of decadal solar variability on ozone and temperature in the tropical stratosphere, along with interconnections to other features of the middle atmosphere, simultaneous data obtained from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) aboard the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) during the period 1992–2004 have been analyzed using a multifunctional regression model. In general, responses of solar signal on temperature and ozone profiles show good agreement for HALOE and SAGE~II measurements. The inferred annual-mean solar effect on temperature is found to be positive in the lower stratosphere (max 1.2±0.5 K / 100 sfu) and near stratopause, while negative in the middle stratosphere. The inferred solar effect on ozone is found to be significant in most of the stratosphere (2±1.1–4±1.6% / 100 sfu). These observed results are in reasonable agreement with model simulations. Solar signals in ozone and temperature are in phase in the lower stratosphere and they are out of phase in the upper stratosphere. These inferred solar effects on ozone and temperature are found to vary dramatically during some months, at least in some altitude regions. Solar effects on temperature are found to be negative from August to March between 9 mb–3 mb pressure levels while solar effects on ozone are maximum during January–March near 10 mb in the Northern Hemisphere and 5 mb–7 mb in the Southern Hemisphere.