Anomalous effect in Schumann resonance phenomena observed in Japan, possibly associated with the Chi-chi earthquake in Taiwan
- 1The University of Electro-Communications, Department of Electronic Engineering, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo 182-8585, Japan
- 2Chubu University, Department of Electronics Engineering, 1200 Matsumoto-cho Kasugai, Aichi, 487-8501, Japan
- 3Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine
Abstract. The Schumann resonance phenomenon has been monitored at Nakatsugawa (near Nagoya) in Japan since the beginning of 1999, and due to the occurance of a severe earthquake (so-called Chi-chi earthquake) on 21 September 1999 in Taiwan we have examined our Schumann resonance data at Nakatsugawa during the entire year of 1999. We have found a very anomalous effect in the Schumann resonance, possibly associated with two large land earthquakes (one is the Chi-chi earthquake and another one on 2 November 1999 (Chia-yi earthquake) with a magnitude again greater than 6.0). Conspicuous effects are observed for the larger Chi-chi earthquake, so that we summarize the characteristics for this event. The anomaly is characterized mainly by the unusual increase in amplitude of the fourth Schumann resonance mode and a significant frequency shift of its peak frequency (~1.0Hz) from the conventional value on the By magnetic field component which is sensitive to the waves propagating in the NS meridian plane. Anomalous Schumann resonance signals appeared from about one week to a few days before the main shock. Secondly, the goniometric estimation of the arrival angle of the anomalous signal is found to coincide with the Taiwan azimuth (the unresolved dual direction indicates toward South America). Also, the pulsed signals, such as the Q-bursts, were simultaneously observed with the "carrier" frequency around the peak frequency of the fourth Schumann resonance mode. The anomaly for the second event for the Chia-yi earthquake on 2 November had much in common. But, most likely due to a small magnitude, the anomaly appears one day before and lasts until one day after the main shock, with the enhancement at the fourth Schumann resonance mode being smaller in amplitude than the case of the Chi-chi earthquake. Yet, the other characteristics, including the goniometric direction finding result, frequency shift, etc., are nearly the same. Although the emphasis of the present study is made on experimental aspects, a possible generation mechanism for this anomaly is discussed in terms of the ELF radio wave scattered by a conducting disturbance, which is likely to take place in the middle atmosphere over Taiwan. Model computations show that the South American thunderstorms (Amazon basin) play the leading role in maintaining radio signals, leading to the anomaly in the Schumann resonance.