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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 20, issue 10
Ann. Geophys., 20, 1693–1697, 2002
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-20-1693-2002
© Author(s) 2002. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Ann. Geophys., 20, 1693–1697, 2002
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-20-1693-2002
© Author(s) 2002. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  31 Oct 2002

31 Oct 2002

Letter to the Editor
Energy spectrum of secondary protons above the atmosphere measured by the instruments NINA and NINA-2

V. Bidoli1, M. Casolino1, De Pascale1, G. Furano1, A. Iannucci1, A. Morselli1, P. Picozza1, R. Sparvoli1, A. Bakaldin2, A. Galper2, S. Koldashov2, M. Korotkov2, A. Leonov2, V. Mikhailov2, S. Voronov2, M. Boezio3, V. Bonvicini3, A. Vacchi3, G. Zampa3, N. Zampa3, M. Ambriola4, F. Cafagna4, M. Circella4, C. De Marzo4, O. Adriani5, P. Papini5, P. Spillantini5, S. Straulino5, E. Vannuccini5, M. Ricci6, and G. Castellini7 V. Bidoli et al.
  • 1University of Rome “Tor Vergata" and INFN section of Roma2, Rome, Italy
  • 2Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia
  • 3University of Trieste and INFN section of Trieste, Trieste, Italy
  • 4University of Bari and INFN section of Bari, Bari, Italy
  • 5University of Florence and INFN section of Florence, Florence, Italy
  • 6INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Frascati, Italy
  • 7Institute of Applied Physics “Nello Carrara", CNR, Florence, Italy
  • Correspondence to: R. Sparvoli
  • (Roberta.Sparvoli@roma2.infn.it)

Abstract. In this paper we report on the energy spectrum of protons of albedo origin measured by the instruments NINA and NINA-2 at different geomagnetic locations, and the behaviour of the proton flux as a function of altitude out of the South Atlantic Anomaly. The instrument NINA was used on board the satellite Resurs-01-N4 between 1998 and 1999, at an altitude of about 830 km. The NINA-2 apparatus, on board the satellite MITA, was put into orbit in July 2000, at an altitude of about 450 km. A detailed understanding of the fluxes of charged particles in near Earth orbit is important to reach an accurate theoretical description of the Earth’s magnetic field, but also as input for the calculation of the back-ground for scientific instruments aboard satellites, like the future AGILE and GLAST g astronomy telescopes.

Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; instruments and techniques)

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