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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 16, issue 2
Ann. Geophys., 16, 205–228, 1998
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-998-0205-8
© European Geosciences Union 1998
Ann. Geophys., 16, 205–228, 1998
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-998-0205-8
© European Geosciences Union 1998

  28 Feb 1998

28 Feb 1998

Development of a chemistry module for GCMs: first results of a multiannual integration

B. Steil1, M. Dameris2, C. Brühl1, P. J. Crutzen1, V. Grewe2, M. Ponater2, and R. Sausen2 B. Steil et al.
  • 1Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Abteilung Luftchemie, D-55020 Mainz, Germany
  • 2DLR Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfa€ffenhofen, D-82234 Wessling, Germany

Abstract. The comprehensive chemistry module CHEM has been developed for application in general circulation models (GCMs) describing tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, including photochemical reactions and heterogeneous reactions on sulphate aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds. It has been coupled to the spectral atmospheric GCM ECHAM3. The model configuration used in the current study has been run in an "off-line" mode, i.e. the calculated chemical species do not affect the radiative forcing of the dynamic fields. First results of a 15-year model integration indicate that the model ECHAM3/CHEM runs are numerically efficient and stable, i.e. that no model drift can be detected in dynamic and chemical parameters. The model reproduces the main features regarding ozone, in particular intra- and interannual variability. The ozone columns are somewhat higher than observed (approximately 10%), while the amplitude of the annual cycle is in agreement with observations. A comparison with HALOE data reveals, however, a serious model deficiency regarding lower-stratosphere dynamics at high latitudes. Contrary to what is concluded by observations, the lower stratosphere is characterized by slight upward motions in the polar regions, so that some of the mentioned good agreements must be considered as fortuitous. Nevertheless, ECHAM3/CHEM well describes the chemical processes leading to ozone reduction. It has been shown that the mean fraction of the northern hemisphere, which is covered by polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) as well as the temporal appearance of PSCs in the model, is in fair agreement with observations. The model results show an activation of chlorine inside the polar vortex which is stronger in the southern than in the northern winter hemisphere, yielding an ozone hole over the Antarctic; this hole, however, is also caused to a substantial degree by the dynamics. Interhemispheric differences concerning reformation of chlorine reservoir species HCl and ClONO2 in spring have also been well reproduced by the model.

Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure · Middle atmosphere · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · Climatology · General circulation

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