Influence of different wind directions in relation to topography on the outbreak of convection in Northern England
Abstract. The influence of different wind directions on the outbreak of convection in Northern England, was investigated with a high-resolution numerical model. The Clark model, a 3D finite-difference, non-hydrostatic model was used in this study. It was initialised with the topography of Northern England, a representation of surface characteristics, and used a routinely available meteorological sounding, typical of the unstable conditions. Results showed that convective cells were initially triggered in the lee of the elevated terrain, and that only after the convection had developed, were cells upwind of the elevated terrain produced. The windward slopes themselves seemed sheltered from convection. Under most wind directions, the central Pennines (the Forest of Trawden and the Forest of Rossendale) seemed particularly affected by convective rainfall.