Longitudinal effects of ionospheric responses to substorms at middle and lower latitudes: a case study
Abstract. An ionospheric model is used to simulate total electron content (TEC) disturbance events observed at middle and lower latitude sites near 75°W and 7°E longitudes. Within this longitudinal range, daytime TEC disturbances show patterns that are correlated with substrom activity seen in both auroral electrojet and ring current behavior. In modeling studies of the observed ionospheric effects, both electric field and neutral wind perturbations are examined as possible mechanisms. The morphological features of the required electric field perturbations near drawn and dusk are compared with those at other times to examine the local time characteristics of magnetospheric influence. Large-scale traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs), an alternative candidate for the disturbance source, are also characterized and compared with known thermospheric behavior.